D. Eric Mazur
Monterey, CA February 21, 2013
Lectures focus on transformation of information.
If that is all learning is about, we can place contents online.
What is missing? Interaction
But most presentations have little interaction.
When you materials online, students can:
1. Stop and think
2. Go back and repeat the video or re-read the information
Students need three things in powerful learning:
The learner needs to do something with the information.
Education is what is left after all that is learned is forgotten Skinner
Context is forgotten with just recall.
‘College is a place where a professor’s lecture notes go straight to the students’ lecture notes, without passing through the brains of either.’ Mark Twain
Dr. Mazur’s students were successful in rote testing, but had a very difficult time with what he thought was a simple assessment called the Forced concept Inventory. The assessment was word based, and students had to define simple concepts such as “force.”
Students asked the professor the question, “How shall I answer questions. As you taught me or as I usually think about these things?”
Find on Youtube: Confessions of a Converted Lecturer
Now has students explain the problems and answers with other students because:
1. Students more likely to convince other students because they just got it, and
2. The teacher did not see this but years ago; called the curse of knowledge. The student who got the answer correct just “got it” and have the empathy and experience of knowing what it was like prior to “getting it”
Students spend time assimilating information and then getting those “aha” moments which take place when we are practicing mostly outside the classroom.
Question - how do we facilitate learning in classroom in flipped classrooms
Focus on questioning after watching lecture at home.
Students can provide questions along with main teacher question, then students:
1. Asked to think alone and come up with answer (don’t share or speak aloud yet) but respond on clicker or device
2. Then they are to find a neighbor with a different answer and convince their neighbor why and then discuss again
3. The teacher then polls the students again and then have students repeat the process
See: Peer instruction.net